"The right tools can make a big difference in becoming a successful market gardener. At our farm we've experimented with different tools and techniques over the last decade to find what really works. Here are my personal recommendation for the best market gardening tools."
Maintaining soil structure — and the soil food web it supports — is such an important component of successful vegetable production that at our 2-acre market farm we avoid tools that penetrate more than a few inches into the soil’s surface. The one exception is the broadfork.
In recent years the broadfork has been popularized and you can now find different models that are quality made. Since it’s a tool we use a lot (it takes stamina to work a couple 100’ beds!) we prefer a wooden handle broadfork over heavier all-metal ones. I’d rather replace a broken shaft every couple years than spend a lifetime lifting extra weight... A good broadfork should also have forged steel tines for heavy-duty service.
In my experience:
- The one I prefer was designed and handcrafted to my liking and is sold at Dubois Agrinovation. Ithas 5, 12-inch tines shaped in 90° parabolic curves that greatly smothers the rowing motion. www.dubois.com
- Johnny’s Selected Seeds also offers several broadfork models that can accommodate different soil types. I’ve tried them all and would recommend any of them.
- Finally, for new ground that is not yet loose enough or really rocky, I would use the people's broadfork form Meadow Creature. It's an all metal broadfork made for heavy duty broadforking. www.meadowcreature.com
The most widely distributed two-wheel tractors in North America are made by the Italian company BCS. I recommend Model 853, as most 30-inch tools can be installed on it.
The 732 and 739 models have shorter handlebars (less operator leverage on the machine, especially a problem with heavy implements like the Power Harrow). Most importantly, only the 853 will have enough power to handle the 34” flail mower that should be used on 30″ bed systems.
BCS two-wheel tractors are equipped with a rototiller, but there is a wide variety of other attachments available. For bed preparation our equipment of choice is a rotary power harrow (often just called a power harrow) which I would recommend over any other tilling or spading device. We also rely on a 34″ flail mower for dealing with cover crops and a Berta Plow (also referred to as a rotary plow) to create our raised beds. BCS America's web site is awesome and provide all the info about there walking tractors and implements and will point you to local dealers.
Another supplier Ilike is Earth Tools, a family-owned company from Kentucky who has been pushing two-wheel tractors for market gardening for more than 30 years. They know their stuff. Earth Tools Inc. USA. 502-484-3988. www.earthtoolsbcs.com
In Canada, one dealer I appreciate and recommend is Thivierge from Drummondville, Qc. Besides holding one of the largest in-store inventories, the owner Ben has been tinkering, improving and designing market gardening implements for BCS two-wheel tractors. Équipements Thivierge. Drummondville, Québec 819-398-7445.
There are many different kinds of hoes and a dizzying array of names for similar tools.
The ones we use most are long-handled stirrup hoes that have a swiveling, double-sided cutting blade––thin and sharp––that travels beneath the soil surface to clip the weeds where they are most vulnerable––below ground. They have a long handle which allows you work with your back straight and come in three sizes: 3¼ inches, 5 inches and 7 inches.
We also rely on a 7″ blade Collinear hoe that was designed by Eliot Coleman and which we use for hoeing under salads and leafy vegetables. Also sold by Johnny’s Selected Seeds of Maine. www.johnnyseeds.com
Quick Cut Greens Harvester
The quick cut harvester (QCH) is a must for any small or urban farmer looking to market a 100 lbs of salad mix per week or more.
It replaces cutting greens with field knives, doing the work 10 folds faster. On our farm, what used to take two people four hours, can now be done in forty-five minutes with one person…Needless to say, it’s a major helper in our (too) busy harvest day. We use the QCH for all of our baby greens such as; red russian kale, arugula, mustards, and baby lettuces. Keeping the blade extra sharp is a key for the effectiveness of the tool. I recommend buying at least one replacement blade with it, so that you can change it over mid season, then get the older one sharpened while it’s not being used. Sold by www.farmersfriendllc.com
Over the years I have trialled and tested almost every push seeder that I can get my hands on.
For many seasons we successfully used a combination of the Earthway and the Glazer (described below) for all direct seeded crops. Two years ago we adopted a new one the Jang TP-1, which I now consider the best option for the market garden. Although pricier then the two others combine, it is superior by far. Versatile, rugged and precise, the Jang can seed everything from small seeds like carrots to medium or larger ones like beans, all with great uniformity. Another great feature of this seeder is its ability to properly seed in rough terrain. The seeders opener shoe can cut through crop residues and stones plowing at an accurate width and depth. In other words, your beds don't need to be perfectly clean for this baby to successfully operate. Available from www.johnnyseeds.com
These are the 6 rollers we use it with :
- X-24 (Carrots, Leeks, Mesclun, Onion, Radish, and Scallion at 1/2" - 2 1/2" apart)
- LJ-12 (Large Beets, Okra, Swiss Chard at 2-5" apart)
- Y-24 for dense plantings of small seeded leaf lettuces, chicories, and purslane
- MJ-12 for spinach, smaller seeded beets and chard, bulb fennel, parsnips, and pelleted seeds (lettuce, carrots, etc)
- YYJ-12 (Arugula, Basil, Broccoli, Kale, Parsley, and Turnip at 2"-5" apart)
- R-24 for large seeded beets
- F-24 for radishes and cilantro
The Earthway Seeder allows you to plant a variety of vegetable seeds with one continuous operating motion of opening the soil, planting the seed, covering, and then marking the next row. It easily, quickly and & precisely (somewhat...) plants beans, beets, carrots, peas, radishes, corn and more . If you're starting out on less then a half an acre (and on a shoestring) the Earthway is a good and affordable option. Comes with 6 seed plates which should suffice you. The guys from Four Season Tools seem to have the best price for it.
This clever tool–conceptualized by Eliot Coleman- is a lightweight battery-powered tiller designed to work the top inch of your bed.
The cultivator makes it possible to mix in compost and refine the soil all while creating a perfect tilth for direct seeding or transplanting. Although it's not powerful enough to be used in our whole market garden, we rely on it in our greenhouses where a walking tractor doesn't maneuver easily. We recommend getting one or two18V batteries when purchasing your drill, as they run out of juice after 2 or 3-100' beds. Also, keep in mind that this tool is not meant for working out rough soil, but rather for nicely finishing off seedbeds. Sold at www.johnnyseeds.com.
BED PREPARATION RAKE
We rely heavily on this 30'' rake to remove debris, rocks and larger soil clods into the pathways.
You can find the bed preparation rake at: www.johnnyseeds.com.
The plastic tubes we slide over the tines of our rake for row marking can be purcharsed at the johnny's seeds store or cut out of PEX tubing (available at any hardware store)
Plastic mulch, row covers and insect netting
The compostable & biodegradable mulch film we use is the Bio360 (formerly BioTelo) sold by www.dubois.com. Its made made of 100% biodegradable and compostable corn starch based raw material.
Wheel hoes are a great tool for cultivating crops grown in just one row or to weed pathways.
They can also be used to mix in amendments and prepare seedbeds just like a walk-behind tractor would do (only it takes longer!)
- Our preferred wheel hoe is the sturdy, high-quality wheel hoe made by Glaser in Switzerland. Ours is mounted with a 12’’ knife and can be found at www.johnnyseeds.com
- We also use and recommend the less expensive, yet heavy duty wheel hoes from the American company Hoss. www. hosstools.com. Both the Hoss and Glaser wheel hoes are worth every penny.
- Finally, in the last few years, I've been trialling a new kind of wheel hoe developed by the French company Terrateck. This last offers the possibility of using in row disks for close cultivation. Find the Terrateck wheel hoe at: www.dubois.ag
Row Cover & Anti-Insect Netting
The floating row cover we use most often is Agryl P19. The anti-insect netting we use for protecting against leek moth has a mesh size of 0.05 inches and is cut to size based on our needs.
Dubois also sells the UV-treated sandbags we use to hold row covers down and the biodegradable & compostable black mulch film BIO360. Both of these products are sold by Dubois Agrinovationwww.duboisag.com
The UV-treated polyethylene tarp we use for clearing our permanent beds of crop residues while keeping weeds in check are silage tarps. You might find them in any feed store suply. A nice supplier in the US is Farmers Friend LLC . In Québec, we get ours from Dubois Agrinovation. www.duboisag.com
Small tools can make a big difference during harvest - here are some of the tools that make our harvest days more efficient & enjoyable.
Two knives that we really like:
The mini-machete-type field knife is used to harvest broccoli, cauliflower and lettuce. Sold by William Dam Seeds of Ontario, Canada. 905-628-6641. www.damseeds.com
The #10 Opinel knife is a high-quality knife from France. It is light and very pleasant to handle. Available for order online from Lee Valley Tools. www.leevalley.com
We sharpen our field knives daily. This job is a lot easier with an ultra-fast sharpener called the Speedy Sharp. Although this sharpener wears the knives down more, its speed and ease of use make it an indispensable tool. We also use it to sharpen the blade of our mesclun harvester. Speedy Sharp is sold in all Canadian Tire stores and available online. www.canadiantire.ca
A hand salve? Absolutely essential after long harvests. We’ve tried a lot of them before adopting this one many years ago. Happy to endorse it. Available online at www.3acres.ca
The garden cart we use to transport our harvest bins from the gardens to our storage area is the Model 26 cart from Carts Vermont. The wheels of the cart align perfectly between the rows of our beds (4 feet from center to center). This tool is durable, ergonomic and indispensable. Sold in Ontario in Lee Valley stores or online. www.leevalley.com
The Model 26 is also sold by Johnny’s Selected Seeds of Maine, USA. 1-877-564-6697. www.johnnyseeds.com
Indoor Seedling Equipment
We buy all of our cell flats, trays and pots from Groupe Horticole Ledoux, Quebec. 1-888-791-2223. www.ghlinc.com
Our Precision Vacuum Seeder was homemade, but Johnny’s Selected Seeds now sells one that I would recommend. It’s quality is worth the price tag. USA. 1-877-564-6697. www.johnnyseeds.com.
The same company also sells nice commercial heat mats that can be chained together to cover whole seedling tables. Johnny’s Selected Seeds of Maine, USA. 1-877-564-6697. www.johnnyseeds.com.
We order most of our seeds from the following companies:
Johnny’s Selected Seeds of Maine, USA. 1-877-564-6697. www.johnnyseeds.com
William Dam Seeds of Ontario, Canada. 905-628-6641. www.damseeds.com
West Coast Seeds of Vancouver, Canada. 888-804-8820. www.westcoastseeds.com
High Mowing Organic Seeds of Vermont, USA. 802-472-6174. www.highmowingseeds.com
Shelter Solutions: Greenhouses & Tunnels
We have dealt with a number of companies that make quality greenhouses and tunnels.
Multi Shelter Solutions, from Ontario, offers simple and economical tunnels. Multi Shelter Solutions, Palmerston, Ontario, 1-866-838-6729. www.sheltersolutions.ca
Four Season Tools: These guys offer affordable and versatile season extension technology. Being growers themselves, they also offer great service. Four Season Tools.
Finally, A company that set's up a real nice caterpillar tunnel system is Farmer Friends LLC. Simple, economical and efficient design. Check it out.
We get all our Irrigation gear from Dubois Agrinovation. They have super competent consultants who are available to help design irrigation plans. We benefited greatly from their expertise when designing our system. Theysupplied us with ourMini-Wooblers and Naan low-flow sprinklers as well as all pipes, cam-lock joints and drip irrigation. Dubois Agrinovation1-800-667-6279. www.duboisag.com
We purchased our cold room second-hand with a new compressor under warranty. The ideal situation may be to deal with a company that sells and repairs air conditioning systems in your area, as after-sales service is very important if your equipment breaks down or is damaged.
An alternative to cooling with a compressor is the CoolBot, which transforms any air conditioner unit (the kind installed in windows) into a cooler that keeps your cold room at a controlled temperature, just as an air compressor would. The CoolBot unit costs a fraction of the price, is easy to install and consumes less electricity than a conventional compressor. We have not tested it ourselves, but the unit was designed by farmers and comes with a satisfaction guarantee. More details are available on the company’s website. CoolBot, 1-888-871-5723. www.storeitcold.com
You can purchase the different components to build a vertical electric fence at most farm co-ops or feed stores. On a technical level, this involves linking a few “polytapes” (or a number of metal wires with a diameter of 1/10 inches, 12.5 AWG) on posts spaced every 33 feet. The wire must be attached to the post by a plastic insulator, and the electrical current circulating must have a tension of at least 4000 volts. (More is ideal; 8000 volts will prevent deer from knocking the fence over at night.)
Polypropylene trellises designed expressly for guarding against the entry of deer, raccoons, hares and other wild animals are sold by Dubois Agrinovation of Saint-Rémi, Quebec. 1-800-667-6279. www.duboisag.com
Not all sprayers are created equal, and it is worthwhile investing in a high-quality one. If you are trying to cover a length of 330 feet, an efficient sprayer can cut the number of times you need to pump in half. We now use a German made Birchmeier, which is a high end sprayer worth every penny. Sold by M.K.Rittenhouse of Ontario, Canada. 1-800-461-1041 www.rittenhouse.ca